What is SQL, Data Database, DBMS , RDBMS, SQL Commands Categories

by | Apr 15, 2024 | SQL | 0 comments

In this BlogPost we would like to define Most Basic Terms in SQL:- What is SQL, Data Database, DBMS , RDBMS.

What is SQL?

SQL is a language used for relational databases to query or get data out of a database. SQL is also referred to as SQL and is short for its original name, Structured Query Language. SQL Is a language used for a database to query data.

What is Data?

Overall, in SQL, data refers to the structured information stored in a relational database system, organized into tables, rows, and columns, and managed using SQL commands and statements. Data is a collection of facts in the form of words, numbers, or even pictures. Data is one of the most critical assets of any business. It is used and collected practically everywhere. Your bank stores data about you, your name, address, phone number, account numbers, etc. Your credit card company and your PayPal accounts also store data about you. Data is important so it needs to be secure and it needs to be stored and access quickly. The answer is a database. What is a database? Databases are everywhere and used every day, but they are largely taken for granted.

What is Database?

A database is an organized collection of data, typically stored and managed electronically in a computer system. It is designed to efficiently manage, manipulate, retrieve, and store large volumes of structured or unstructured data.

Here are some key components and characteristics of databases:

  1. Data Organization: Databases organize data into structured formats, typically using tables composed of rows and columns. This structured format allows for efficient storage, retrieval, and manipulation of data.
  2. Data Management System: A database management system (DBMS) is software that enables users to interact with the database. It provides tools and utilities for creating, querying, updating, and managing data within the database. Popular examples of DBMSs include MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle Database, Microsoft SQL Server, MongoDB, and SQLite.
  3. Data Integrity and Security: Databases enforce data integrity by implementing constraints, rules, and validations to ensure the accuracy, consistency, and reliability of data. They also provide mechanisms for securing data, such as user authentication, access control, encryption, and auditing.
  4. Scalability and Performance: Databases are designed to scale to accommodate growing amounts of data and users. They often support features like indexing, caching, partitioning, and replication to optimize performance and handle high volumes of concurrent transactions.
  5. Concurrency Control: Databases support concurrent access to data by multiple users or applications. They use concurrency control mechanisms, such as locks, transactions, and isolation levels, to ensure data consistency and prevent conflicts between concurrent transactions.
  6. Data Querying and Manipulation: Databases support querying and manipulation of data using query languages such as SQL (Structured Query Language) for relational databases or NoSQL query languages for non-relational databases. These languages provide powerful syntax for retrieving, filtering, aggregating, and modifying data.
  7. Data Persistence: Databases provide persistent storage for data, meaning that data remains intact even after the system is shut down or restarted. They use disk-based storage systems to store data persistently, ensuring durability and reliability.

Here are some common types of databases:

  1. Relational Databases (RDBMS):
    • Relational databases store data in tables, with rows representing individual records and columns representing attributes or fields.
    • Examples: MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle Database, SQL Server, SQLite.
  2. NoSQL Databases:
    • NoSQL (Not Only SQL) databases are non-relational databases designed to handle large volumes of unstructured or semi-structured data.
    • Types include document stores, key-value stores, column-family stores, and graph databases.
    • Examples: MongoDB (document store), Redis (key-value store), Cassandra (column-family store), Neo4j (graph database).
  3. Graph Databases:
    • Graph databases store data in graph structures, consisting of nodes, edges, and properties, to represent and store relationships between data entities.
    • They are well-suited for applications with highly interconnected data.
    • Examples: Neo4j, Amazon Neptune, Azure Cosmos DB.
  4. Document Databases:
    • Document databases store data in JSON-like documents, allowing for flexible and schema-less data structures.
    • They are suitable for applications with semi-structured or variable data.
    • Examples: MongoDB, Couchbase, Elasticsearch.
  5. Column-Family Databases:
    • Column-family databases store data in columns rather than rows, enabling efficient storage and retrieval of data with a high volume of columns.
    • They are well-suited for applications with wide, sparse data sets.
    • Examples: Apache Cassandra, Apache HBase.
  6. Key-Value Stores:
    • Key-value stores store data as a collection of key-value pairs, offering fast and efficient retrieval of data by key.
    • They are commonly used for caching, session management, and real-time data processing.
    • Examples: Redis, Amazon DynamoDB, Riak.
  7. Time-Series Databases:
    • Time-series databases are optimized for storing and querying time-series data, such as sensor data, logs, and metrics.
    • They provide efficient storage and retrieval of data points with timestamps.
    • Examples: InfluxDB, Prometheus, TimescaleDB.
  8. Spatial Databases:
    • Spatial databases are designed to store and query spatial data, such as geographical information system (GIS) data and location-based data.
    • They provide specialized data types and functions for spatial queries.
    • Examples: PostGIS (extension for PostgreSQL), Oracle Spatial, MongoDB with geospatial indexes.

What is DBMS, RDBMS?

A database is a repository of data. A set of software tools for the data in the database is called a database management system, or DBMS, for short. The terms database, database server, database system, data server and database management systems are often used interchangeably. For relational databases, it’s called a relational database management system or RDBMS. RDBMS is a set of software tools that controls the data, such as access, organization, and storage. RDBMS serves as the backbone of applications in many industries, including banking, transportation, health, and so on. Examples of relational database  management systems are MySQL, Oracle database, DB2 warehouse, and DB2 on Cloud.

In the context of relational databases, entities, relationships, and attributes are fundamental concepts that work together to represent and organize data. Here’s a breakdown of each:


  • An entity represents a real-world object, concept, or event that you want to store information about in the database. Essentially, it’s a category of data you want to track.
  • Entities are typically mapped to tables in a relational database.


  • In an online store database, Customer and Product could be considered entities.


  • An attribute represents a specific characteristic or property of an entity. It defines a particular piece of information you want to capture about each instance (row) within an entity (table).
  • Attributes are mapped to columns in a table.


  • For the Customer entity, attributes might include customer_idfirst_namelast_name, and email.
  • For the Product entity, attributes might include product_idnameprice, and description.


  • Relationships represent the connections or associations between different entities. They define how entities are linked to each other.
  • Relationships are often modeled using foreign keys. A foreign key is a column in one table that references the primary key of another table. This establishes a link between the two entities.


  • In an online store, there might be a relationship between Customer and Order. An Order would have a foreign key referencing the customer_id in the Customer table, indicating which customer placed the order.

How they work together:

  • By using entities, attributes, and relationships, you can create a well-structured database that accurately reflects the real-world scenario you’re trying to model.
  • Entities define the core categories of data, attributes specify the details you want to capture for each entity, and relationships show how these entities are interconnected.

Benefits of this approach:

  • This approach helps to organize data efficiently, minimize redundancy, and ensure data integrity.
  • It allows for easier retrieval and manipulation of data through queries.
  • It provides a clear understanding of the data structure within the database.

List Five Basic SQL Commands

five basic SQL commands are:- to create a table,  Insert data to populate the table,  Select data from the table, Update data in the table, and Delete data from the table. 

Categories of SQL Commands

SQL commands are traditionally divided into four main categories:

  1. Data Query Language (DQL): These commands are used to retrieve data from a database. The most common DQL command is SELECT, which allows you to specify which columns and tables you want to query and filter the results based on certain conditions.
  2. Data Definition Language (DDL): These commands are used to define the structure of the database itself. This includes creating tables, specifying data types for columns, adding constraints, and modifying the table schema. The most common DDL command is CREATE TABLE.
  3. Data Manipulation Language (DML): These commands are used to modify existing data within the database. This includes inserting new data (INSERT), updating existing data (UPDATE), and deleting data (DELETE).
  4. Data Control Language (DCL): These commands are used to manage access privileges and control how users interact with the database. Common DCL commands include GRANT and REVOKE for assigning and removing permissions, and COMMIT and ROLLBACK for controlling transactions.

Written by HintsToday Team

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